Strong interaction

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The nucleus of a helium atom. The two protons have the same charge, but still stay together due to the residual nuclear force

Standard Model of particle physics

Fundamental particles of the standard model

Particle physics
Standard Model
Quantum field theory
Gauge theory
Spontaneous symmetry breaking
Higgs mechanism

Electroweak interaction
Quantum chromodynamics
CKM matrix
Standard Model mathematics

Strong CP problem
Hierarchy problem
Neutrino oscillations
Physics beyond the Standard Model

Rutherford · Thomson · Chadwick · Bose · Sudarshan · Koshiba · Davis Jr. · Anderson · Fermi · Dirac · Feynman · Rubbia · Gell-Mann · Kendall · Taylor · Friedman · Powell · P. W. Anderson · Glashow · Meer · Cowan · Nambu · Chamberlain · Cabibbo · Schwartz · Perl · Majorana · Weinberg · Lee · Ward · Salam · Kobayashi · Maskawa · Yang · Yukawa · ‘t Hooft · Veltman · Gross · Politzer · Wilczek · Cronin · Fitch · Vleck · Higgs · Englert · Brout · Hagen · Guralnik  · Kibble  · Ting · Richter


In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction and gravitation. At the range of 10−15 m (femtometer), the strong force is approximately 137 times as strong as electromagnetism, a million times as strong as the weak interaction and 1038 times as strong as gravitation.[1] The strong nuclear force holds most ordinary matter together because it confines quarks into hadron particles such as proton and neutron. In addition, the strong force binds neutrons and protons to create atomic nuclei. Most of the mass of a common proton or neutron is the result of the strong force field energy; the individual quarks provide only